Propolis means a gum that is gathered by bees from various plants. It is known for its biological properties, having antibacterial, antifungal and healing properties. The aims of this study were to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of four different Anatolian propolis samples on different groups of microorganisms including some oral pathogens and comparison between their chemical compositions. Ethanol extracts of propolis (EEP) were prepared from four different Anatolian propolis samples and examined whether EEP inhibit the growth of the test microorganisms or not. For the antimicrobial activity assays, minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined by using macrodilution method. The MIC values of the most effective propolis (TB) were 2 microg/ml for Streptococcus sobrinus and Enterococcus faecalis, 4 microg/ml for Micrococcus luteus, Candida albicans and C. krusei, 8 microg/ml for Streptococcus mutans, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Enterobacter aerogenes, 16 microg/ml for Escherichia coli and C. tropicalis and 32 microg/ml for Salmonella typhimurium and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The chemical compositions of EEP's were determined by high-temperature high-resolution gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The main compounds of four Anatolian propolis samples were flavonoids such as pinocembrin, pinostropin, isalpinin, pinobanksin, quercetin, naringenin, galangine and chrysin. Although propolis samples were collected from different regions of Anatolia all showed significant antimicrobial activity against the Gram positive bacteria and yeasts. Propolis can prevent dental caries since it demonstrated significant antimicrobial activity against the microorganisms such as Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus and C. albicans, which involves in oral diseases.