Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and chronic inflammatory demyelinating poly-(radiculo)neuropathy (CIDP) are immune-mediated disorders with a variable duration of progression and a range in severity of weakness. Infections can trigger GBS and exacerbate CIDP. Anti-ganglioside antibodies are important, but there is debate on the role of genetic factors in the pathogenesis of these disorders. Randomized controlled trials (RCT) have shown that intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) and plasma exchange (PE) are effective in both GBS and CIDP. Most CIDP patients also improve after steroid therapy. Despite current treatment options, many patients have residual deficits or need to be treated for a long period of time. Therefore, new treatment trials are highly indicated. This review focuses on the current and possible new treatment options that could be guided by recent results from laboratory experiments.