Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 96581 was cultivated in a chemostat reactor with undetoxified dilute acid softwood hydrolysate as the only carbon and energy source. The effects of nutrient addition, dilution rate, cell recirculation, and microaerobicity were investigated. Fermentation of unsupplemented dilute acid lignocellulose hydrolysate at D = 0.10 h(-1) in an anaerobic continuous reactor led to washout. Addition of ammonium sulfate or yeast extract was insufficient for obtaining steady state. In contrast, dilute acid lignocellulose hydrolysate supplemented with complete mineral medium, except for the carbon and energy source, was fermentable under anaerobic steady-state conditions at dilution rates up to 0.14 h(-1). Under these conditions, washout occurred at D = 0.15 h(-1). This was preceded by a drop in fermentative capacity and a very high specific ethanol production rate. Growth at all different dilution rates tested resulted in residual sugar in the chemostat. Cell recirculation (90%), achieved by cross-flow filtration, increased the sugar conversion rate from 92% to 99% at D = 0.10 h(-1). Nutrient addition clearly improved the long-term ethanol productivity in the recirculation cultures. Application of microaerobic conditions on the nutrient-supplemented recirculation cultures resulted in a higher production of biomass, a higher cellular protein content, and improved fermentative capacity, which further improves the robustness of fermentation of undetoxified lignocellulose hydrolysate.