The use of lentiviral vectors for gene transfer into hematopoietic stem cells has raised considerable interest as these vectors can permanently integrate their genome into quiescent cells. Vectors based on alternative lentiviruses would theoretically be safer than HIV-1-based vectors and could also be used in HIV-positive patients, minimizing the risk of generating replication-competent virus. Here we report the use of third-generation equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV)- and HIV-1-based vectors with minimal viral sequences and absence of accessory proteins. We have compared their efficiency in transducing mouse and human hematopoietic stem cells both in vitro and in vivo to that of a previously documented second-generation HIV-1 vector. The third-generation EIAV- and HIV-based vectors gave comparable levels of transduction and transgene expression in both mouse and human NOD/SCID repopulating cells but were less efficient than the second-generation HIV-1 vector in human HSCs. For the EIAV vector this is possibly a reflection of the lower protein expression levels achieved in human cells, as vector copy number analysis revealed that this vector exhibited a trend to integrate equally efficiently compared to the third-generation HIV-1 vector in both mouse and human HSCs. Interestingly, the presence or absence of Tat in viral preparations did not influence the transduction efficiency of HIV-1 vectors in human HSCs.