We investigated the hypouricemic effects of cassia oil extracted from Cinnamomum cassia using hyperuricemic mice induced by potassium oxonate, and its inhibitory actions against liver xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) and xanthine oxidase (XOD) activities. Oral administration of cassia oil significantly reduced serum and hepatic urate levels in hyperuricemic mice in a time- and dose-dependent manner. At doses of 450 mg/kg of cassia oil or above, serum urate levels of the oxonate-pretreated mice were not different from the normal control mice. Cassia oil at 600 mg/kg was found to be as potent as allopurinol, which reduced hepatic urate levels to lower than normal. In normal mice, urate levels in liver, but not in serum, were altered with dose-dependent decrease after cassia oil treatment. Furthermore, the ratio, liver uric acid/serum uric acid, was determined after cassia oil administration with time- and dose-dependent decreases in hyperuricemic mice. The positive dose-dependent decrease ratio was also observed after cassia oil treatment in the normal animals. The decreased extent of ratio elicited by cassia oil in normal mice appeared to be greater than that in the hyperuricemic animal. In addition, cassia oil significantly exhibited marked reductions in liver XDH/XOD activities, with an apparent dose-dependence in the normal and hyperuricemic mice. The onset of inhibition in enzyme activities elicited by allopurinol was much higher than that elicited by cassia oil. These results suggested that hypouricemic effects of cassia oil could be explained, at least partly, by inhibiting liver in vivo activities of XDH/XOD.