We compared the dietary and total (diet and supplement) intake of micronutrients with the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) from the USA in a population of pregnant Greek women.
Two hundred pregnant women participated in a nutritional survey, 98 in the second trimester and 102 in the third trimester in a random sampling. To examine dietary intake we used two questionnaires, the nutritional questionnaire for pregnant women from the California Department of Health Services, and a semi-quantitative questionnaire (Walter Willet) with modifications for use in Greece. Dietary intake analysis was performed using the Diet Analysis Plus software, Version 3, ESHA Research. Statistical analysis was performed with Minitab for Windows, Release 12. A simple complementary questionnaire concerning demographic and socio-economic features was also completed.
The average total intake of vitamins A, B(1), B(2), B(3), B(6), B(12) and C, calcium and phosphorus was higher than the respective DRIs. Folic acid and iron intake exceed the highest values specified for pregnancy. Vitamin E and zinc was lower than the DRIs, while vitamin D, magnesium and thiamin did not differ.
The results of our study suggest that in a Greek population, sufficient micronutrients appear to be received in adequate amount from diet, except for folic acid and iron, which also had to be taken in the form of nutritional supplements.