Dramatic advances in the diagnosis and treatment of influenza in Japan has been made in recent years. Rapid diagnosis tests for influenza are routinely performed in Japanese hospitals. Both zanamivir and oseltamivir have been approved for the treatment of influenza since 2001, in addition to amantadine. Japan has the highest figure of neuraminidase inhibitor-use in the world because the treatment of influenza with neuraminidase inhibitors is covered by Japan's National Health Insurance program. Therefore, we should carefully observe the appearance of resistance strains and side effects to neuraminidase inhibitors.