Overall, 253 genomic wheat (Triticum aestivum) microsatellite markers were studied for their transferability to the diploid species Aegilops speltoides, Aegilops longissima, and Aegilops searsii, representing the S genome. In total, 88% of all the analyzed primer pairs of markers derived from the B genome of hexaploid wheat amplified DNA fragments in the genomes of the studied species. The transferability of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers of the T. aestivum A and D genomes totaled 74%. Triticum aestivum-Ae. speltoides, T. aestivum-Ae. longissima, and T. aestivum-Ae. searsii chromosome addition lines allowed us to determine the chromosomal localizations of 103 microsatellite markers in the Aegilops genomes. The majority of them were localized to homoeologous chromosomes in the genome of Aegilops. Several instances of nonhomoeologous localization of T. aestivum SSR markers in the Aegilops genome were considered to be either amplification of other loci or putative translocations. The results of microsatellite analysis were used to study phylogenetic relationships among the 3 species of the Sitopsis section (Ae. speltoides, Ae. longissima, and Ae. searsii) and T. aestivum. The dendrogram obtained generally reflects the current views on phylogenetic relationships among these species.