Lifestyle factors and symptoms of gastro-oesophageal reflux -- a population-based study.
Although the symptoms of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease are common in the general adult population, the aetiology of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease is still largely unknown. Lifestyle factors such as diet, body mass index, and smoking have been frequently suggested as possible risk factors.
In the present study, we investigated the relationship between various lifestyle factors and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease symptoms.
A total of 7124 subjects were interviewed as part of the German National Health Interview and Examination Survey, a representative sample of the general adult population. We examined a variety of possible risk factors, including age, gender, body mass index, smoking, alcohol consumption, sports and different foods. To investigate the association between lifestyle and symptoms, we used a multiple logistic regression model, including various gastro-oesophageal reflux disease patient characteristics.
We found an association among those with reflux symptoms who were overweight and obese (odds ratio: 1.8, 95% confidence interval: 1.5-2.2; odds ratio: 2.6, 95% confidence interval: 2.2-3.2), respectively. Further risk factors included smoking and the frequent consumption of spirits, sweets, or white bread. Physical activity and the consumption of fruits seemed to have some protective effect.
Lifestyle factors -- in particular overweight, obesity and smoking -- were associated with increased reflux symptoms.
Institute of Social Medicine, Epidemiology, and Health Economics, Charité University Medical Center, Berlin, Germany. firstname.lastname@example.org
Body Mass Index