COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease) and bronchial asthma are two severe lung diseases which represent a major problem of world public health. Leukotrienes and prostanoids play an important role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary diseases. Prostanoids: prostaglandins (PGs) and thromboxane A2 (TXA2), the cyclooxygenase metabolites of arachidonic acid are implicated in the inflammatory cascade that occurs in asthmatic airways. Recently, the roles played by isoprostanes or prostaglandin-like compounds nonenzymatically generated via peroxidation of membrane phospholipids by reactive oxygen species, in particular F2-isoprostanes, in pulmonary pathophysiology have been highlighted. This article aims to provide an overview of the role of prostanoids and isoprostanes in the pathogenesis of COPD and asthma and to discuss the pharmacological strategies developed in prevention and/or treatment of these pathologies.