Antibiotics are clinically indicated for acute bacterial rhinosinusitis, but they may be prescribed inappropriately. This retrospective study examined how labeled recommendations for duration of moxifloxacin and levofloxacin treatment of acute bacterial rhinosinusitis compare with real-world practice, and compared the failure and recurrence rates, and associated charges.
The PharMetrics Patient-Centric claims database was searched over a 3-year period for episodes of acute rhinosinusitis treated within 5 days with moxifloxacin or levofloxacin. The duration of antibiotic treatment prescribed was compared with the labeled recommendation. Failure rates (a second antibiotic claim to treat acute rhinosinusitis within 30 days of the first claim), recurrence rates (subsequent antibiotic claims to treat any rhinosinusitis more than 30 days after the original or second [in the case of failure] claim), and treatment charges from the perspective of the payer (health insurer) were also compared using multivariate analysis.
The initial duration prescribed of moxifloxacin was shorter than for levofloxacin (-1.65 days, p < 0.0001), reflecting the shorter labeled recommendation (10 days versus 10-14 days). The durations of monotherapy (-2.06 days, p < 0.0001) and of all antibiotic treatment (-1.97 days, p < 0.0001) were also significantly shorter for episodes treated initially with moxifloxacin. The odds ratio for treatment failure (0.718; 95% confidence interval = 0.598-0.863; p = 0.0004) and the hazard ratio for recurrence (0.652; p = 0.0005) were both significantly lower for moxifloxacin than for levofloxacin, and resulted in lower total treatment charges (-$37.94 +/- 13.65; p = 0.0055).
The shorter treatment durations seen for moxifloxacin in this database of real-world care reflect the label-recommended duration for acute rhinosinusitis. Despite this shorter duration of therapy, moxifloxacin resulted in better outcomes than levofloxacin in terms of the risk of treatment failure and recurrence. In addition, the total charges were lower for patients treated with moxifloxacin.