Coeliac disease (CD) may be a risk factor for renal disease.
We investigated the risk of any form of glomerulonephritis (GN) (acute, chronic and non-specified), chronic glomerulonephritis (CGN) and renal replacement therapy including dialysis treatment and kidney transplantation (KT) in patients with CD in a general population-based cohort study. We used Cox regression to assess the risk of renal disease in 14,336 patients who had received a diagnosis of CD (1964-2003) and 69,875 reference individuals matched for age, calendar year, sex and county. Patients were identified using the Swedish Hospital Discharge Registry. Follow-up began 1 year after study entry.
CD was associated with an increased risk of any form of GN (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.64; 95% confidence intervals (CI) = 1.01-2.66; P = 0.046; 89 events), CGN (HR = 2.65; 95% CI = 1.34-5.24; P = 0.005; 39 events), dialysis (HR = 3.48; 95% CI = 2.26-5.37; P < 0.001; 102 positive events) and KT (HR = 3.15; 95% CI = 1.29-7.71; P = 0.012; 22 events).
We suggest that immune characteristics associated with CD increase the risk of chronic renal disease. Individuals with CD may also be at a moderately increased risk of any form of GN.