The first two patients to be treated with miltefosine for post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) are reported. One was a 26-year-old Ethiopian man who had been treated with sodium stibogluconate, for relapsing visceral leishmaniasis (VL), four times between August 2002 and March 2004. In January 2004 this patient was found to be seropositive for HIV and began antiretroviral treatment with stavudine, lamivudine and nevirapine. Five months later he developed clinical PKDL, with extensive cutaneous, conjunctival and oral mucosal involvement. The second patient was a 42-year-old Ethiopian man who was treated for relapsing VL in November 2003. He too was subsequently found to be seropositive for HIV and was treated with stavudine, lamivudine and nevirapine from May 2004. He developed a nodular rash of PKDL over his face and upper body 2 weeks after starting the antiretroviral therapy. Treatment of both patients with oral miltefosine, at 100 mg/day for 28 days, led to the complete regression of their PKDL lesions. When checked 3-6 months after the end of the miltesofine treatment, neither patient showed any signs of VL, PKDL or other HIV-associated disease.