The high prevalence of adverse health outcomes related to intimate partner violence (IPV) is well documented. Yet we know little about the pathways that lead to adverse health outcomes. Research concerning the psychological, biological, neurological, behavioral, and physiological alterations following exposure to IPV--many of which are associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)--represents a promising area of empirical discovery. New technologies and interdisciplinary collaborative efforts are required to integrate diverse methodologies and to apply new findings to improving the health and well being of those affected by IPV. This article focuses on victimization by IPV and addresses the most important research findings in the last 20 years (health and mental health burden of IPV), the most important research issue for the next decade (pathways between IPV and adverse health outcomes), and the most promising methodological innovation for the study of IPV (integrated, interdisciplinary, biobehavioral methodology).