Two synthetic hexaploid wheat lines (xAegilotriticum spp., 2n = 6x = 42, genomes AABBDD), SW8 and SW34, developed from the crosses of the durum wheat cultivar Langdon (Triticum turgidum L. var. durum, 2n = 4x = 28, genomes AABB) with two Aegilops tauschii Cosson accessions (2n = 2x = 14, genome DD), were determined to carry Hessian fly [Mayetiola destructor (Say)] resistance genes derived from the Ae. tauschii parents. SW8 was resistant to the Hessian fly biotype Great Plains (GP) and strain vH13 (virulent to H13). SW34 was resistant to biotype GP, but susceptible to strain vH13. Allelism tests indicated that resistance genes in SW8 and SW34 may be allelic to H26 and H13 or correspond to paralogs at both loci, respectively. H26 and H13 were localized to chromosome 4D and 6D, respectively, in previous studies. Molecular mapping in the present study, however, assigned the H26 locus to chromosome 3D rather than 4D. On the other hand, mapping of the resistance gene in SW34 verified the previous assignment of the H13 locus to chromosome 6D. Linkage analysis and physical mapping positioned the H26 locus to the chromosomal deletion bin 3DL3-0.81-1.00. A linkage map for each of these two resistance genes was constructed using simple sequence repeat (SSR) and target region amplification polymorphism (TRAP) markers.