A three-year-old girl with a lingual plexiform neurofibroma treated by total excision is presented. Despite their occurrence in the head and neck region, neural sheath tumors are rarely encountered in the oral cavity. It is reported that 4-7% of patients affected by neurofibromatosis display oral manifestations. Neurofibromatosis is characterized by café-au-lait spots and cutaneous neurofibromas. Plexiform neurofibroma is said to be indicative of von Recklinghausen's disease (VRD) even though it may be the only manifestation of the disease. Generally, surgical resection represents the treatment of choice and the diagnosis can only be confirmed after histological examination. Affected patients need regular follow-up to detect malignant degeneration, an early recurrence or appearance of other manifestations of VRD.