This review discusses emerging treatments of migraine in the context of what is now available. At present, patients are treated with a range of acute attack medicines or preventive treatments, with many having significant drawbacks. Important unmet needs are acute attack treatments that act by exclusively neural mechanisms with no vascular effects, and effective, well tolerated preventive medicines. Calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor antagonist, vanilloid receptor antagonists and nitric oxide synthase inhibitors are all in clinical trials for acute migraine. Tonaberset (a gap-junction blocker), an inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor and botulinum toxin A are in clinical trials for preventive therapy. Device-based approaches using neurostimulation of the occipital nerve are being studied, although the first study of patent foramen ovale closure for migraine prevention failed.