We report the case of an 11-year-old girl with a retroperitoneal tumor in the left upper quadrant. The girl was admitted to hospital with weight loss and a painless abdominal mass that on biopsy was diagnosed as a peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor/Ewing sarcoma (pPNET/EWS) of the soft tissue. The patient underwent chemotherapy followed by surgical resection of the tumor 5 months after diagnosis. The posttreatment residual viable tumor showed a morphologic appearance resembling a neuroblastoma. Interphase and metaphase fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) studies performed on the pretreatment and posttreatment samples showed the presence of a t(11;22) rearrangement resulting in EWSR1/FLI1 gene fusion consistent with pPNET/EWS in both specimens. This case is unusual in the sense of showing the typical gene fusion for pPNET/EWS both in the pretherapy sample with the typical morphological appearance of this tumor and in the posttherapy specimen showing neural differentiation suggestive of a neuroblastoma.