Mashua (Tropaeolum tuberosum Ruíz and Pavón), an Andean tuber with high antioxidant activity, has sparked interest because of its traditional medicinal use. In this study, we evaluated the anthocyanin composition for three purple mashua genotypes and their contribution to the overall antioxidant activity of the tuber. Mashua anthocyanins, total phenolics, and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) antioxidant activity ranged from 45.5 to 131.9 mg of cyanidin 3-glucoside equivalents/100 g fresh weight (FW), 174.9 to 275.5 mg of gallic acid equivalents/100 g of FW, and 16.2 to 45.7 micromol of Trolox equivalents/g of FW, respectively. The high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection (HPLC-DAD) and HPLC-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI/MS-MS) profiles revealed the presence of 11 different anthocyanins. The two major pigments (56.4-73.0% total area range at 520 nm) were identified as delphinidin 3-glucoside-5-acetylrhamnoside and delphinidin 3-sophoroside-5-acetylrhamnoside. Other pigments were delphinidin 3-glucoside-5-rhamnoside, delphinidin 3-sophoroside-5-rhamnoside, delphinidin 3-glucoside, cyanidin 3-sophoroside, and cyanidin 3-sophoroside-5-rhamnoside. Cyanidin 3-glucoside and cyanidin 3-rutinoside were only found in two genotypes, while pelargonidin 3-sophoroside and pelargonidin 3-sophoroside-5-rhamnoside were only found in the third one. Anthocyanins from mashua were the major contributors to the total ABTS values for only one of the three genotypes, suggesting that other phenolics present are playing a major role in the antioxidant power of mashua tubers. Results from this study provide important information for the Nutraceutical and Functional Food Market for the use of mashua anthocyanins not only as a source of natural colorants but also as a source of phytonutrients.