Hemorrhagic fever with the renal syndrome (HFRS) is a typical natural-and-focal virus infection having military-and-epidemiological importance for Armed Forces of most countries. Severe forms of this infection are typical for the Far East of Russia, countries of South-East Asia and especially for the American continent. The lethality from HFRS amounts to 15-50%. The main natural carriers and keepers of HFRS stimulus are various mouse-type rodents. In Russia besides well-studied natural focuses on the Far East, Siberia, Ural, Povolge other active HFRS focuses were determined not long ago (Moscow, Orel, Lipetsk, Tula and Voronezh regions, the territory of Big Sochi). A man is infected by an aerosol, forming during drying up of rodents' urine, feces, saliva containing HFRS virus. Vaccinal prevention of HFRS in Russia hasn't yet been worked out. Ribavirin is the most effective in the treatment for HFRS. The means of prevention of population and servicemen must exclude their contact with rodents both in natural conditions and in populated areas.