Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology is successful in identification of benign and malignant breast lesions, but its role in proliferative breast lesions which increase cancer risk is poorly defined. We have analyzed the cytomorphologic features of proliferative breast lesions in conjunction with cytologic scoring system proposed by Masood et al and with histopathology. Sixty two patients (14 cases of fibroadenoma, 15 cases of fibroadenoma with atypia, 11 cases of proliferative breast disease (PBD), 8 cases of PBD with atypia and 14 cases of carcinoma) diagnosed on routine FNA were subjected to scoring following Masood's criteria. All cases with the cytologic diagnosis of fibroadenoma were confirmed on histology. Of 11 cases of PBD on FNA, 10 were PBD without atypia on histology. One case, which showed atypical hyperplasia on histology, was missed by both the scoring system and cytomorphology and one case was over-diagnosed as PBD with atypia by the scoring system. FNA cytology correctly identified all the carcinoma cases, while the scoring system under-diagnosed 2 cases as PBD with atypia. Hence, in cases not suspected to be atypical or confirmed to be cancer on routine cytology, scoring added no information over and above cytomorphology and was not useful. All fourteen cases of fibroadenoma with atypia suspected on routine cytology were fibroadenoma on histology. Scoring system correctly placed 11/14 of these cases as PBD without atypia. Similarly 3/8 cases thought to be PBD with atypia were correctly placed as PBD without atypia by scoring. Only 2/8 cases thought to be PBD with atypia on cytology were confirmed to have atypical hyperplasia on histology. Scoring improved the diagnostic yield to 2/5. Hence, in cases of fibroadenoma or PBD, suspected on FNAC to have cytological atypia, Masood scoring gives additional information by eliminating benign cases and improving diagnostic yield. Application of scoring in a step-wise manner, on atypical aspirates, can help in selection of cases suitable for biopsy.