Scleroderma renal crisis (SRC) occurs in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) and is defined by otherwise unexplained rapidly progressive renal insufficiency associated with oliguria or rapidly progressive arterial hypertension or both. SRC is a rare and severe complication of SSc, most often encountered during the first 4 years of disease, almost only in patients with diffuse SSc. Factors predicting SRC were identified, including high-dose corticosteroid administration. Use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) has dramatically impressed the prognosis of SRC, but it mortality rate is still high. Treatment aims at normalizing blood pressure as soon as possible. ACEI should always be used, and additional anti-hypertensive agents, including calcium channel blockers and alpha- and beta-blockers, may be useful. Renal replacement therapy may be needed, but often (for almost half of patients) only temporarily.