Earlier studies have suggested that untreated coeliac disease may be associated with osteoporosis, but results are contradictory for the risk of long-term fractures.
To study the association between coeliac disease and fractures.
We used Cox regresson to examine the future risk of hip fracture and fracture of any type in more than 13 000 individuals with coeliac disease and 65 000 age- and sex-matched reference individuals in a general population-based cohort.
During follow-up, 1365 first hip fractures and 4847 fractures of any type occurred. Coeliac disease was positively associated with subsequent hip fracture (hazard ratio = 2.1; 95% CI = 1.8-2.4) (in children: hazard ratio = 2.6; 95% CI = 1.1-6.2) and fractures of any type (hazard ratio = 1.4; 95% CI = 1.3-1.5) (in children: hazard ratio = 1.1; 95% CI = 1.0-1.2). The absolute excess risk of hip fractures in children with coeliac disease was 4/100 000 person-years. Incidence ratios for hip fracture in individuals with CD were around two both prior to diagnosis of coeliac disease and afterwards; this risk increase remained 20 years after diagnosis of coeliac disease.
Individuals with coeliac disease, including children with coeliac disease, may be at increased risk of hip fracture and fracture of any type. Coeliac disease may be positively associated with long-term hip fracture risk.