Although under-reporting of dietary intake is more common in persons with a high body mass index (BMI), it is not well known whether or not misreporting is selective for different foods (and hence energy and nutrients), particularly in non-Western populations. We examined misreporting of dietary intake against biomarkers and its relation with BMI in young Japanese women.
A total of 353 female Japanese dietetic students aged 18-22 years (mean BMI: 21.4 kg/m(2), mean fat intake: 29.8% of energy).
Misreporting of dietary energy, protein, potassium and sodium (assessed by a self-administered diet history questionnaire) was examined against respective biomarkers (estimated energy expenditure and 24-h urinary excretion). Reporting accuracy was calculated as the ratio of reported intake to that estimated from corresponding biomarkers (complete accuracy: 1.00).
Mean reporting accuracy of absolute intake (amount per day) varied considerably (0.86-1.14). Reporting accuracy of absolute intake decreased with increasing BMI (P for trend <0.001). However, no association was observed between reporting accuracy of energy-adjusted values and BMI (P for trend >0.15), indicating that BMI-dependent misreporting was canceled by energy adjustment. This was owing to positive correlation between the reporting accuracy of energy intake and that of absolute intake of the three nutrients (Pearson correlation coefficient: 0.49-0.67, P<0.0001).
Although differential misreporting of absolute intake was associated with BMI, differential misreporting of energy-adjusted value was not. These findings support the use of energy-adjusted values in the investigation of diet-disease relationships among lean populations with a low-fat intake.