To characterize the electroclinical features and evolution of Panayiotopoulos Syndrome (PS).
Children with electroclinical criteria of PS were prospectively identified and followed-up clinically, and with sleep and awake EEGs between February 1990 and 2006.
We identified 192 patients with PS. In the same length of time 398 children with benign childhood epilepsy with centro-temporal spikes (BCECTS) were registered. PS had a peak age at onset of 5 years. Autonomic manifestations were one of the most common ictal event. Ictal deviation of the eyes and progression to generalized convulsions were also quite frequent. Approximately one third had partial status epilepticus. In all patients except five, the seizures occurred during sleep. One-third also had fits while awake. Sixteen children had concomitant symptoms of rolandic epilepsy and eight developed rolandic seizures after remission of PS seizures. Prognosis was excellent. Eighty-four (44.2%) had a single seizure, 79 (41.2%) had 2-5 fits, and 28 (14.6%) had frequent seizures.
PS is less common than BCECTS, but is well defined and easily recognizable by clinical and EEG features, with autonomic manifestations as one of the most common ictal event.