Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a common X-linked disease characterized by widespread muscle damage that invariably leads to paralysis and death. There is currently no therapy for this disease. This study was purposed to investigate the feasibility to use adult adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AD-MSCs) in the therapy of DMD. The Flk-1(+) MSCs were isolated from adipose tissue of adult GFP mice; the phenotype and cell cycle of MSCs were analyzed by flow cytometry; the AD-MSCs were directionally differentiated by myoblast and endotheliablast induction system in vitro and were identified by immumofluorecence staining and RT-PCR; the AD-MSCs were transplanted into CTX-injured mice model or mdx mice (DMD animal model) through tail vein; the distribution and differentiation of AD-MSCs were detected by immunofluorescence staining and RT-PCR respectively, and statistic analysis was performed. The results showed that the Flk-1(+) AD-MSCs could be induced to differentiate into myoblasts and endothelial cells in vitro. After transplanted into CTX-injured mice model or mdx mice, GFP-positive cells could be detected in damaged muscle, and these donor-derived cells were also positive for MHC, vWF, or Pax7. Flk-1(+) AD-MSC transplantation also partly reconstituted the expression of dystrophin, and reduced the percentage of centronucleated myofibers in mdx mice. It is concluded that Flk-1(+) AD-MSCs represent a possible tool for future cell therapy applications in DMD disease, as they can be delivered through the circulation for their potential of muscle homing. And Flk-1(+) AD-MSCs also show the ability to contribute to muscle repair, improvement of blood supply and long term reconstitution of dystrophy muscle.