Cytomegalovirus (CMV) remains a serious problem after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). To investigate the incidence of CMV infection and outcome we retrospectively analyzed 70 consecutive pediatric allogeneic HSCTs monitored by CMV polymerase chain reaction (PCR), with at least 1-year follow-up or until death. All patients at risk for CMV infection (CMV-seropositive patients and CMV-seronegative recipients transplanted from CMV-seropositive donors) received hyperimmune anti-CMV globulins whereas in the group of HSCT patients with both donor and recipient CMV negativity, polyvalent immunoglobulins were given, both at a dose of 400 mg/kg. All patients received acyclovir at prophylactic doses for at least 6 months. Patients were monitored twice a week by CMV PCR. Patients with 2 positive results for CMV DNAemia received ganciclovir for 14 days and continued until 2 consecutive negative results were obtained. The incidence of CMV DNAemia was 12.8% (9/70) in the whole group, with significant higher risk for patients with CMV-seropositive recipient status, 8 out of 22 (36%), vs. patients with seronegative status, 1 out of 48 (2%) (P=0.0002). Three out of 9 patients with DNAemia developed CMV disease despite adequate preemptive treatment. The transplant-related mortality was higher in the CMV-seropositive recipient group (P=0.05). Age, use of hyperimmune anti-CMV globulins at a high dose, and the low incidence of graft-versus-host disease might be contributing factors to this low incidence.