To determine whether the daily intake of 2,092 kJ (500 kcal) from peanuts will improve the lipid profiles and diet quality of healthy Ghanaians.
A 30-week, randomized, cross-over trial study was conducted with healthy adults.
There were three treatment arms: Treatment 1 (T1), subjects were provided 2,092 kJ/day (500 kcal/day) peanuts to incorporate into their daily diet for 8 weeks at any time and in any form they chose; Treatment 2 (T2), subjects were provided 2,092 kJ/day (500 kcal/day) peanuts and were instructed to consume them in addition to their customary daily diet for 3 weeks; Treatment 3 (T3), substitution of 2,092 kJ/day fat, with energy from peanuts. Total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and triglyceride were measured at baseline, week 4 and week 8 (T1 and T3) or at baseline and week 3 (T2). Three-day dietary intake records were kept during each treatment.
There was significant decrease in total cholesterol (7.2%) and triacylglycerol (20.0%) after T1. However, individually, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels did not change significantly. Total fat intake increased by 9%, due to elevations of monounsaturated fatty acid of 60% and polyunsaturated fatty acid of 50%. Similar non-significant trends were observed during T2 and T3.
The results suggest that regular consumption of peanuts lowers the total cholesterol and triacylglycerol concentrations among healthy Ghanaians. Regular consumption of peanuts should therefore be encouraged.