This study was carried out to determine whether polymorphisms of organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1) have an effect on rosuvastatin pharmacokinetics in Koreans. Among 200 subjects genotyped for OATP1B1 c.388A>G, and c.521T>C, 30 subjects were selected for the rosuvastatin pharmacokinetic study. The area under the concentration-time curve for 0 to infinity (AUC(0-infinity)) of rosuvastatin for group 1 (*1a/*1a, *1a/*1b, *1b/*1b), group 2 (*1a/*15, *1b/*15), and group 3 (*15/*15) were 111+/-49.3, 126+/-45.2, and 191+/-31.0 ng h/ml, respectively, with significant differences among the three groups (P=0.0429) and between *15/*15 and the other groups (P=0.0181). The maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) also showed a significant difference between *15/*15 and the other groups (P=0.0181). There were no significant differences in rosuvastatin-lactone pharmacokinetics among the three groups. The pharmacokinetic exposure of rosuvastatin was higher in the OATP1B1*15/*15 subjects than the others, suggesting a potential association between the OATP1B1 genetic polymorphisms and altered rosuvastatin pharmacokinetics in Korean populations.