Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) treatment is painful, and cosmetic results are often unsatisfying. Azithromycin has been reported to be effective in treatment of CL caused by Leishmania viannia braziliensis. The efficacy of azithromycin was compared with Glucantime in treatment of Old World leishmaniasis. Of 49 patients, 22 received 500 mg/day azithromycin for 5 days/month. Treatment cycles were repeated monthly to a maximum of 4 months; 27 patients received 60 mg/kg intramuscular meglumine antimoniate for 20 days. Both groups were followed up for 16 weeks. In the azithromycin group, 2 patients withdrew because of GI symptoms. The response rates of 20 patients (29 lesions) were as follows: full improvement, 10.3%; partial improvement, 27.6%; and 62.1%, no response. In the glucantime group with 27 patients (58 lesions), these rates were 34.4%, 13.8%, and 51.7%, respectively (P = 0.036). Azithromycin was determined to be not as effective as Glucantime in treatment of Old World CL.