This study examines the association between dietary patterns and endometrial cancer risk. A case-control study of endometrial cancer was conducted from 1996 to 1999 in the San Francisco Bay Area in white, African-American, and Latina women age 35-79. Dietary patterns were defined using a principal components analysis; scoring dietary intake based on correspondence to a Mediterranean-style diet; and by jointly categorizing intake of fruits/vegetables and dietary fat. Four dietary patterns were identified and labeled "plant-based," "western," "ethnic," and "phytoestrogen-rich." None of these dietary patterns nor adherence to a Mediterranean diet (to the extent consumed by this population) was associated with endometrial cancer risk. However, among non-users of supplements, greater consumption of the "western" dietary pattern was associated with a 60% increase in risk (95% CI: 0.95-2.7 per unit change; P-interaction = 0.10). A diet characterized by high fat consumption increased risk, regardless of fruit and vegetable consumption (OR = 1.4, 95% CI: 0.97-2.1 for high fat, low fruit/vegetable intake and OR = 1.4, 95% CI: 0.95-2.1 for high fat, high fruit/vegetable intake compared to low fat, high fruit/vegetable intake). Thus, while like others we found that dietary fat increases endometrial cancer risk, the evaluation of dietary patterns did not provide any additional information regarding risk.