To specify the trend in the incidence of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) at a predialysis stage of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the course of its progression from stage III to stage V and after transplantation of the kidney (TK); to study correlations between homeostatic disorders caused by CKD progression and myocardial remodeling; to define the role of some hemodynamic and nonhemodynamic factors in formation of LVH.
The study enrolled 128 patients (58 males and 70 females, age 18-55 years, mean age 42 +/- 11 years) at a predialysis stage of CKD (group 1) and 225 recipients of renal allotransplant--RRA (group 2, 140 males and 85 females, age 18-69 years, mean age 43 +/- 12 years). General clinical examination, biochemical and immunological blood tests, echocardiography were made.
At a predialysis stage of CKD, LVH was diagnosed in 56% patients. Incidence of LVH was directly related with age of the patients (p = 0.001), blood pressure (p < 0.001), duration of arterial hypertension (p = 0.004), severity of anemia (p = 0.017), the level of C-reactive protein (p = 0.003), blood phosphorus concentration and inversely correlated with glomerular filtration rate--GFR (p = < 0.001), albumin level (p = 0.023) and blood Ca (p < 0.001). LVH was followed up for 12 months in 35 patients with predialysis CKD. Factors of LVH progression and factors hindering its regression were systolic blood pressure, Hb and Ca in the blood. In group 2 of RRA incidence of LVH was 53%. Significant factors of LVH risk after transplantation were age (p = 0.002), hypertension (p = 0.005) and anemia (p = 0.04). Moreover, LVH closely correlated with proteinuria (p < 0.03), transplant dysfunction (p = 0.002) and posttransplantation ischemic heart disease (p < 0.037). Changes in LVH were analysed in 30 RRA. Frequency of LVH decreased for 2 years after transplantation (from 56 to 32%) but 36-60 and more months after transplantation it increased (46 and 64%, respectively). Transplant dysfunction was the leading factor hindering LVH regression after transplantation.
The same mechanisms are involved in LVH pathogenesis after transplantation and at a predialysis stage of CKD. The significance of initial renal lesion signs--minimal proteinuria and hypercreatininemia--was higher after renal transplantation than in patients with CKD.