Diabetes mellitus in patients with myocardial infarction affects in-hospital and late mortality. It has been shown that the glucose level on admission can also affect prognosis. This conclusion was based on an analysis performed on a heterogeneous group of patients, treated not only with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) but also with fibrinolysis. Moreover, the threshold values hyperglycaemia for the diagnosis of were also variable.
To assess whether glucose level on admission affects in-hospital and one-year prognosis in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) treated with PCI.
Consecutive patients with STEMI treated with PCI were included in the analysis. Patients with STEMI complicated by cardiogenic shock were also included. Three groups according to the glucose level on admission were analysed: group I - <7.8 mmol/l (140 mg/dl), group II - 7.8-11.1 mmol/l (140-200 mg/dl), and group III - > or = 11.1 mmol/l (200 mg/dl).
The incidence of diabetes mellitus in the total group (1027 patients) was 26.1%, and of cardiogenic shock - 9.2%. Group I consisted of 472 patients, group II - 307 patients, and group III - 248 patients. Compared with normoglycaemic patients, those with elevated glucose level were older, more often female, had more often hypertension, diabetes mellitus, cardiogenic shock, were more often treated with fibrinolysis before PCI but were less often smokers. Multivessel disease and initial patency of the infarct-related artery (TIMI 0-1) were more often observed in patients with higher glucose level. A trend towards a higher incidence of reocclusion was also more often present in patients with increased glucose level. Moreover, mean creatine kinase concentration was the highest and the left ventricular ejection fraction was the lowest in group III. During the in-hospital stay, the complication rate was as follows: stroke (1.1% vs. 1.3% vs. 4.4%), and mortality (2.8 vs. 4.9 vs. 13.3%) in groups I, II, and III, respectively. The same tendency was observed during the one-year follow-up period: stroke (1.3 vs. 2.9 vs. 6.9%), mortality (6.4 vs. 9.1 vs. 22.6%). The 1 mmol/l (18 mg/dl) increase of the baseline glucose level among various risk factors was an independent prognostic factor of higher -year mortality (HR=1.06; 95% CI 1.02-1.09). Diabetes mellitus did not affect prognosis among patients included in the analysis.
Elevated glucose level on admission is associated with adverse prognosis in patients with STEMI treated with PCI.