Because urine ion excretion varies throughout the day, clinicians monitor 24 h urine samples to measure ion excretion and supersaturation in kidney stone patients. However, these results are averages and may not reflect maximal supersaturation which drives stone formation. We measured ion excretion and saturation in genetic hypercalciuric stone-forming rats on both a normal or low calcium diet over 0-3, 3-6 and 6-24 h using two feeding protocols, where the daily food allotment was fed either as a bolus or divided into three portions. With a normal calcium diet, urine calcium, oxalate, volume, and calcium oxalate supersaturation were significantly greater on the bolus compared to the divided feeds in the prandial and postprandial periods. Bolus eaters also excreted more calcium and oxalate and had increased volume over 24 h. Maximal calcium oxalate supersaturation was greater during the initial time periods than during the entire 24 h, regardless of the feeding schedule. With the low calcium diet, the effect of bolus feeding was reduced. Thus, urine ion excretion and supersaturation vary with the type of feeding. If these results are confirmed in man, it suggests that eating as a bolus may result in greater prandial and postprandial calcium oxalate supersaturation. This may increase growth on Randall's plaques and promote stone disease.