Compared with the general population, persons with schizophrenia are characterized with an increased prevalence of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease. Weight gain and increased adiposity is associated with decreases in insulin sensitivity, leading to an increased risk of hyperglycaemia and hyperlipidemia. Antipsychotic drugs can increase adiposity and the range of trials suggests that treatment with antipsychotic medications may be associated with an increased risk of acute (ketoacidosis), subacute (weight gain, glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia), and chronic (diabetes, hypertension, coronary heart disease) metabolic complications. Conclusions regarding the relative effects of various antipsychotic agents on different components of the metabolic syndrome were reviewed, as well as recommendations for monitoring these effects were noted. Selection and management of the antipsychotic agent reflects a balance between optimizing therapeutic effectiveness, modifying diet and exercise, and avoiding excessive weight gain, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance.