Eugenia jambolana (Jamun) fruit has been reported to give soothing effect on human digestive system. Present study includes the effect of ethanolic extract of seeds of E. jambolana (EJE) against gastric ulcers induced by 2 h cold restraint stress (CRS), aspirin (ASP, 200 mg/kg, 4 h), 95% ethanol (EtOH, 1 ml/200 g, 1 h) and 4 h pylorus ligation (PL) in rats. To ascertain the mechanism of action of EJE, its effect was studied on mucosal offensive acid-pepsin secretion, lipid peroxidation (LPO, free radical) and defensive mucin secretion, cell proliferation, glycoprotein and glutathione (GSH, an antioxidant). Acute and subacute toxicity studies were also conducted for the safety profile of Eugenia jambolana. EJE 200 mg/kg, when administered orally for 10 days in rats was found to reduce the ulcer index in all gastric ulcer models. It tended to decrease acid-pepsin secretion, enhanced mucin and mucosal glycoprotein and decreased cell shedding but had no effect on cell proliferation. It showed antioxidant properties indicated by decrease in LPO and increase in GSH levels in the gastric mucosa of rats. Acute toxicity study indicated LD50 to be more than 10 times (>2000 mg/kg) of the effective ulcer protective dose while subactue toxicity study (>1000 mg/kg) indicated no significant change in the general physiological and haematological parameters, liver and renal function tests. The result of the present study indicates that E. jambolana seed has gastro-protective properties mainly through promotion of mucosal defensive factors and antioxidant status and decreasing lipid peroxidation.