The effect of a diet containing trans fatty acids (TFA) on the fatty acid composition and fat accumulation was investigated in broiler chickens. Female broilers were fed a control or a TFA-containing diet. The difference between the diets was that a part of cis 18:1 in the control diet was replaced by the TFA. Body composition, energy balance and the fatty acid composition were examined. Over the time-period studied (15 days), the body fat content and the protein content did not differ significantly between the TFA-fed group and the control. In energy balance studies, total energy intake, energy loss in excreta, energy expenditure and energy storage did not differ between the treatments. Compared to the control diet, the TFA diet resulted in significantly higher amounts of 14:0 and 18:1n-7 and lower amounts of 18:1n-9 and 20:4n-6 in the body. In conclusion, the data suggest that feeding TFA for 15 days to female broilers had no effect on energy retention, energy expenditure and energy loss in excreta or in body composition in terms of fat and protein. Only the fatty acid composition in the body was affected by the treatment with TFA. In addition, 50% of ingested TFA was incorporated into the body fat. This may have a negative effect on the dietetic value of chicken meat.