Plexiform neurofibroma of the cauda equina is extremely rare. Herein, a case is reported in a 56-year-old man who also had muscle atrophy, severe motor disturbance, and mild sensory disturbance of the left leg due to childhood poliomyelitis. The clinical symptoms manifested insidiously until the patient developed cauda equina syndrome. At operation, the tumor mass was observed to engulf the nerve roots of the cauda equina. After pathological examination, the diagnosis of plexiform neurofibroma was made. Neither the patient described herein nor any previously reported patients had neurofibromatosis.