Esophagogastric variceal bleeding is the most important complication of extrahepatic portal vein thrombosis (EPVT) and is usually treated endoscopically. Little is known about the prognosis of these patients.
To investigate the long-term clinical outcome and efficacy of endoscopic treatment in patients with esophagogastric variceal bleeding secondary to EPVT.
Retrospective observational study.
Single university center.
Twenty-seven consecutive patients with esophagogastric variceal bleeding, secondary to noncirrhotic, nonmalignant EPVT, who underwent endoscopic treatment between 1982 and 2005.
Endoscopic band ligation and/or endoscopic sclerotherapy.
The overall rebleeding risk, overall survival, complications of the endoscopic procedures, and predictive values of rebleeding. Analyses were performed by the Kaplan-Meier method and univariate Cox regression.
All patients were followed-up after the first endoscopically treated variceal bleeding. A total of 241 endoscopic procedures were performed. In all patients, initial control of bleeding was obtained. The overall rebleeding risk was 23% (95% CI, 0%-24%) at 1 year and 37% (95% CI, 43%-83%) at 5 years. Extension of thrombosis into the splenic vein and the presence of fundal varices were significant predictors of rebleeding, with a nearly 5-fold increased risk for patients with EPVT and fundal varices at the time of the first variceal hemorrhage (hazard ratio 5.07, P = .01). A portosystemic shunt procedure was performed in 5 patients: 4 for variceal bleeding and in one patient for refractory ascites. Seven patients died, none from variceal bleeding. Overall 5-year and 10-year survivals were 100% and 62% (95% CI, 38%-96%), respectively.
In patients with variceal bleeding secondary to EPVT endoscopic treatment, in particular, band ligation appears safe and effective. EPVT-related mortality is primarily determined by other causes than variceal bleeding.