Burkholderia mallei and Burkholderia pseudomallei are the causative micro-organisms of Glanders and Melioidosis, respectively. Although now rare in Western countries, both micro-organisms have recently gained much interest because of their unique potential as bioterrorism agents. This paper reviews the epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of Melioidosis and Glanders. Recent patents relating to these micro-organisms, especially potential vaccines, are presented. Continued research and development is urgently needed, especially in regard to rapid and accurate diagnosis of melioidosis and glanders, efficacious therapy and primary and secondary prevention.