Secondary hyperparathyroidism has a significant impact on morbidity and mortality due to skeletal and extraskeletal manifestations. Cinacalcet, a newly developed calcimimetic, is reported to decrease parathyroidism, as well as serum levels of phosphorus (P) and calcium (Ca) and therefore Ca x P product. Available evidence has shown that cinacalcet decreases the rate of parathyroidectomy and bone fracture in hemodialysis patients, but the death rate remains the same. Although, it is not yet available in Japan, cinacalcet is expected to be available as a possible drug for patients undergoing hemodialysis due to secondary hyperparathyroidism associated with refractory hyperphosphatemia and hypercalcemia. Except for the high cost, cinacalcet will be a welcome therapeutic option for end-stage renal disease and probably also for pre-end-stage renal disease patients. Dietary phosphate restriction and adequate hemodialysis, however, are still the main strategy for the control of hyperphosphatemia and secondary hyperparathyroidism.