Our previous studies have shown that the activation of the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) expressed in the renal pelvis leads to an increase in ipsilateral afferent renal nerve activity (ARNA) and contralateral renal excretory function, but the molecular mechanisms of TRPV1 action are largely unknown. This study tests the hypothesis that activation of receptors of neurokinin 1 (NK1) or calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) by endogenously released substance P (SP) or CGRP following TRPV1 activation, respectively, governs TRPV1-induced increases in ARNA and renal excretory function. Capsaicin (CAP; 0.04, 0.4, and 4 nM), a selective TRPV1 agonist, administered into the renal pelvis dose-dependently increased ARNA. CAP (4 nM)-induced increases in ipsilateral ARNA or contralateral urine flow rate (Uflow) and urinary sodium excretion (UNa) were abolished by capsazepine (CAPZ), a selective TRPV1 antagonist, or 2-[1-imino-2-(2-methoxyphenyl)ethyl]-7,7-diphenyl-4-perhydroisoindolone (3aR,7aR) (RP67580) or cis-2-(diphenylmethyl)-N-[(2-iodophenyl)-methyl]-1 azabicyclo[2.2.2]octan-3-amine (L703,606), selective NK1 antagonists, but not by CGRP8-37, a selective CGRP receptor antagonist. Both SP (7.4 nM) and CGRP (0.13 muM) increased ARNA, Uflow, or UNa, and increases in these parameters induced by CGRP but not SP were abolished by CAPZ. CAP at 4 nM perfused into the renal pelvis caused the release of SP and CGRP, which was blocked by CAPZ but not by RP67580, L703,606, or CGRP8-37. Immunofluorescence results showed that NK1 receptors were expressed in sensory neurons in dorsal root ganglion and sensory nerve fibers innervating the renal pelvis. Taken together, our data indicate that NK1 activation induced by SP release upon TRPV1 activation governs TRPV1 function and that a TRPV1-dependent mechanism is operant in CGRP action.