Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) may be of valuable for exploring protein markers for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The prospect of early detection and treatment, to slow progression, holds hope for aging populations with increased average lifespan. The aim of the present study was to investigate candidate CSF biological markers in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and AD and compare them with age-matched normal control subjects. In this report, we applied proteomics approaches to analyze 60 CSF samples derived from patients with neurodegenerative diseases such as MCI and AD. We classified patients by three groups: normal controls without cognitive dysfunction, MCI and AD. The AD group was subdivided into three groups by clinical severity according to clinical dementia rating (CDR), a well known clinical scale for dementia. We demonstrated a gradual decrease or absent of plasma retinol-binding protein (RBP) and haptoglobin precursor allele 1 in CSF from patients with MCI and AD compared to the age-matched normal subjects. Moreover, expression levels of both RBP and haptoglobin precursor allele 1 were observed to be very high in age-matched normal subjects. In contrast, the RBP and haptoglobin precursor allele 1 were much decreased in the MCI group; those expressions were more weak or absent in AD group, and correlated with disease severity and progression. These findings suggest that the CSF levels of both RBP and haptoglobin precursor allele 1 may be candidate biomarkers for the progression of normal to MCI to AD.