Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a dramatic loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Among the many pathogenic mechanisms thought to contribute to the demise of these cells in sporadic cases of PD, oxidative stress has taken center stage due to extensive experimental evidence showing that dopamine- or MPTP-derived reactive oxygen species and oxidized dopamine metabolites may trigger toxicity through mitochondrial inhibition or deleterious modifications of biomolecules. In familial forms of PD, however, the involvement of toxic protein aggregation (synuclein), impairment of ubiquitin-proteosome system (parkin. and loss of antioxidative properties (DJ-1) has gained attention. Recently, JNK pathway has come to light that could link malfunction of mutated DJ-1, parkin, PINK1 and alpha-synuclein to the oxidative stress-triggered apoptosis, finally ascribing a common pathogenic mechanism to both the sporadic and familial forms of PD.