RAPD analysis was used to study the intraspecific variation and phylogenetic relationships of S-genome diploid Aegilops species regarded as potential donors of the B genome of cultivated wheat. In total, 21 DNA specimens from six S-genome diploid species were examined. On a dendrogram, Ae. speltoides and Ae. aucheri formed the most isolated cluster. Among the other species, Ae. searsii was the most distant while Ae. longissima and Ae. sharonensis were the closest species. The maximum difference between individual accessions within one species was approximately the same (0.18-0.22) in Ae. bicornis, Ae. longissima. Ae. sharonensis, and Ae. searsii. The difference between the clusters of questionable species Ae. speltoides and Ae. aucheri corresponded to the intraspecific level; the difference between closely related Ae. longissima and Ae. sharonensis corresponded to the interspecific level. The section Sitopsis of the genus Aegilops includes six diploid species containing the S genome, which is regarded as an ancestor of the B genome of cultivated wheat. The species of the section are thought to be closest to the genus Triticum. Note that the taxonomic status of some forms of the section Sitopsis is questionable. For instance, Ae. speltoides and Ae. aucheri are variously considered as individual species or as a single species, Ae. speltoides. The situation with Ae. longissima and Ae. sharonensis is similar. Thus, although the group includes only diploid species and is well studied morphologically, its phylogeny and taxonomy are still questionable.