Rotavirus gastroenteritis primarily affects children younger than 5 years of age and is the leading cause of diarrhea-related hospitalizations worldwide. The substantial morbidity associated with this disease and the major burden on healthcare resources underscore the need for an effective vaccine. Two recently developed vaccines (RotaTeq [rotavirus vaccine, live, oral, pentavalent], and Rotarix [rotavirus vaccine, live]) share some characteristics of an ideal rotavirus vaccine. High efficacy, excellent tolerability, and no increased risk of intussusception were shown in separate clinical trials of more than 60,000 infants for each trial, as well as in smaller phase 3 clinical trials of each vaccine. Vaccination against rotavirus will substantially reduce rotavirus gastroenteritis-associated morbidity and mortality and, in so doing, bring about a significant reduction in rotavirus gastroenteritis-associated healthcare utilization.