Genome differentiation in 12 diploid Aegilops species was analyzed using in situ hybridization with the highly repetitive DNA sequences pSc119 and pAs1 and C-banding. Chromosomes of all these diploid Aegilops species hybridized with the pSc119 probe; however, the level of hybridization and labeling patterns differed among genomes. Only four species (Ae. squarrosa, Ae. comosa, Ae. heldreichii, and Ae. uniaristata) showed distinct hybridization with pAs1. The labeling patterns were species-specific and chromosome-specific. Differences in in situ hybridization (ISH) patterns, also observed by C-banding, exist between the karyotypes of Ae. comosa and Ae. heldreichii, suggesting that they are separate, although closely related, subspecies. The S genome of Ae. spelioides was most similar to the B and G genomes of polyploid wheats on the basis of both C-banding and ISH patterns, but was different from other species of section Sitopsis. These species had different C-banding patterns but they were similar to each other and to Ae. mutica in the distribution of pSc119 hybridization sites. Two types of labeling were detected in Ae. squarrosa with the pAs1 probe. The first resembled that of the D-genome chromosomes of bread wheat, Triticum aestivum L. em. Thell., while the second was similar to the D genome of some of the polyploid Aegilops species. Relationships among diploid Aegilops species and the possible mechanisms of genome differentiation are discussed. Key words : wheat, Triticum, Aegilops, in situ hybridization, C-banding, evolution.