Miltefosine is the first effective oral drug against visceral leishmaniasis. However, there are few data about its role against the increasing problem of HIV-associated visceral leishmaniasis. It is necessary to establish a treatment and secondary prophylaxis approach with miltefosine in this population, particularly for those in whom standard treatment was unsuccessful. We report our experience with miltefosine in 5 HIV-infected patients. Miltefosine was used in relapse treatments (50 mg, b.i.d.) in 3 patients and as maintenance therapy (50 mg, 3 times/week) in all of them. Miltefosine was discontinued after full recovery of immune function in 4 patients. The median disease-free period has been 20 months since miltefosine discontinuation. One patient was lost to follow-up. Miltefosine dosage regimens for the treatment of relapses and for maintenance treatment in HIV-infected patients should be established in prospective studies.