Hyperhomocysteinemia is an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD). The aim of this study was to investigate the relations between the methylenetetrafolate reductase (MTHFR) 677C-->T genotypes, B-vitamins (folate, vitamin B-12 and B-6), homocysteine and the risk of CAD. In this case-control study, patients who were identified by cardiac catheterization as having at least 50% stenosis of one major coronary artery were assigned to the case group (n=121). Healthy individuals with normal blood biochemical values were assigned to the control group (n=155). Healthy subjects were matched to case subjects for age. The concentrations of plasma homocysteine, serum folate, vitamin B-12, plasma pyridoxal 5'- phosphate (PLP) and MTHFR 677C-->T gene polymorphism were obtained. The T-allele carriers had significantly higher plasma homocysteine concentration compared to subjects with the 677CC genotype. The MTHFR 677C-->T genotypes were associated with plasma homocysteine after adjusting for various potential risk factors in the case and pooled groups. The MTHFR genotypes were found to have no associations with the risk of CAD. However, plasma homocysteine (>or= 12.5 micromol/L) (OR, 3.49; 95% CI, 1.23-9.88) had a significant association with increased risk of CAD even after additionally adjusted folate status. High plasma homocysteine concentration had a direct effect on the risk of CAD independent of MTHFR 677C-->T genotypes.