The aims of this study were to evaluate 3-dimensional (3D) tooth crown sizes in patients with cleft lip and palate (CLP) and to compare them with those of a Class I control group.
Orthodontic dental casts were used of 72 subjects with CLP (20 bilateral [BCLP], 34 unilateral left [ULCLP], 18 unilateral right [URCLP]) and 53 adolescents in the permanent dentition stage with Class I occlusion. Mesiodistal (MD), labiolingual (LL), and occlusogingival (OG) measurements were recorded by the same examiner using a digital caliper. Statistical analyses were conducted, including repeatability, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and the Duncan tests.
Maxillary and mandibular premolar MD dimensions were larger in the CLP groups than in the control group. The smallest MD dimensions were those of the maxillary right lateral incisors in the BCLP group (P <0.05). The maxillary left lateral incisor MD dimensions in the ULCLP group were smaller when compared with other CLP groups (P <0.001). In general, all LL and OG measurements were smaller in the CLP groups than in the Class I group in both dental arches.
In general, MD, LL, and OG dimensions of CLP patients were smaller than those of the Class I subjects, not only in the affected maxillary dental arch, but also in the mandibular dental arch. Variations in 3D tooth dimensions were found among all CLP types. The lateral incisor in the cleft region was the smallest. A 3D tooth-size evaluation should be included in the diagnostic records to determine precise treatment planning and final occlusion in CLP patients.